Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) denotes surgical interventions, which cause only minimal traumas (injuries of skin and soft tissue). Therefore the procedures are conservative compared to conventional interventions and continually gaining in importance.
Minimally invasive interventions are performed through skin incisions, which are only 0.3 to 2 cm long. With the aid of guide tubes, so-called trocars, the instruments and a camera (laparoscope) are introduced into the abdominal cavity. With these instruments and the image of the laparoscope, which is transmitted onto a monitor, the physician is able to diagnose and operate. MISs have significant advantages for the patient. The comparable small injuries in the skin and soft tissue result in less pain after the surgery. The patient recovers faster and the discharge from the hospital is earlier. Additionally, this results in cost reductions.
Due to their advantages minimally invasive operation procedures have gained in importance over the past years. Throughout Germany, 80% of all cholecystectomies (removal of the gall bladder) are accomplished minimal invasively. Furthermore, operations to cure reflux oesophagitis, appendicitis or inguinal hernias are often performed in this way.
The importance of this method is growing further and MISs have been established for numerous applications. Thus, some diagnoses or operations in the abdominal cavity, examinations of cancers and interventions in gynecology, urology and pediatric surgery are not conceivable without minimally invasive procedures.
Minimally invasive surgery and all further innovative interventions, like monoport-surgery or scar-free operational techniques („natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery“, NOTES), would be unimaginable without modern medical engineering. Further progress is only possible, if more innovative instruments and procedures are allocated for the surgeons.